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  The Quiz:

If you achieve a score of 70% or higher (seven out of ten), you will receive one hour of Continuing Education (CE) credit accredited by the Arizona Dental Association. Each test is $20.00 for AzDA members and $40.00 for Non-AzDA members. A portion of the proceeds will be dedicated to supporting charitable dental events organized by the AzDA Cares Foundation. AzDA operates as a Continuing Education Recognition Program (CERP) provider under the guidance of the American Dental Association.

Did I Do That? The race between man and bug:

1 - Emergence of microbial antibiotic resistance can occur due to any of the following mechanisms EXCEPT:
   un-natural selection by widespread antibiotic use
   bacterial mutation
   sharing of genetic material between organisms
   effective hand washing
2 - Examples of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing include:
   using broad spectrum antibiotics for dental infections
   prescribing antibiotics in the absence of infection
   treating acute infections with antibiotics only
   all of the above
   none of the above
3 - Alcohol based hand gels are a good substitute for soap and water hand washing to prevent transmission of Clostridium difficile.
4 - The most effective way to prevent Clostridium difficile Associated Disease is:
   taking lactobacillus acidophilus with antibiotics
   use amoxicillin rather than penicillin for endodontic infections
   do not prescribe an antibiotic
   prescribe an antibiotic before thorough diagnosis
5 - Fecal bacteriotherapy and probiotics are used based upon the theory that:
   replenishing lost bacteria in the gut will restrict growth of C. diff.
   these procedures directly kill C. diff by toxic shock.
   C. diff is susceptible to ciprofloxacin.
   dental infections cause disease in distant organ systems.
6 - The CDC defines antimicrobial resistance as “the result of microbes changing in ways that increase the effectiveness of drugs, chemical, or other agents to cure or prevent infections.”
7 - The new “epidemic strain” of Clostridium difficile has all of the following characteristics BUT ONE:
   It produces 16 to 23 times more toxin than the classic strain
   It causes CDAD in younger, healthier individuals
   It causes CDAD with increasing incidence and death rate
   It causes CDAD that never recurs
8 - Whenever prescribing antibiotics, which items are necessary to mention during patient counseling?
   CDAD is rare but can happen
   Immediately seek medical care if diarrhea lasts more than 3 days
   Immediately seek medical care if blood appears in the diarrhea
   Start taking oral metronidazole if stomach cramps occur
   a, b, and c, only
9 - Appropriate antibiotics to use to treat endodontic infections in patients with no known drug allergies include:
   all of the above
10 - Antibiotic related pseudomembranous colitis is caused by:
   an allergic reaction
   overgrowth of clostridium difficile due to disruption of the gut microflora
   direct toxicity of clindamycin
   an unknown mechanism